Drogen Molly Inhaltsverzeichnis
MDMA steht für die chirale chemische Verbindung 3,4-Methylendioxy-N-methylamphetamin. Es gehört strukturell zur Gruppe der Methylendioxyamphetamine und ist insbesondere als weltweit verbreitete Partydroge bekannt. Molly eine Variante der Droge MDMA, die auch manchmal Ecstasy genannt wird, mag einem helfen, die ganze Nacht durchzufeiern, aber sie kann einen auch. Die Partyszene wird von einer Droge überflutet, mit denen Stars wie Madonna kokettieren "Molly ist wie alle anderen Drogen sehr gefährlich. MDMA steht für die chirale chemische Verbindung 3,4-Methylendioxy-N-methylamphetamin. Es gehört strukturell zur Gruppe der Methylendioxyamphetamine und ist insbesondere als weltweit verbreitete Partydroge bekannt. MDMA war in den er Jahren mit der Droge Ecstasy – auch kurz E. Ob Pille oder Pulver – MDMA ist eine beliebte illegale Droge. Wer nicht davon lassen kann, findet hier Tipps für möglichst sicheren Konsum.
MDMA wird auch als Emma, Mandy oder Adam bezeichnet (die dazugehörige "Eve" ist MDEA). Als Molly wird im speziellen kristallines MDMA bezeichnet (im. Die Partyszene wird von einer Droge überflutet, mit denen Stars wie Madonna kokettieren "Molly ist wie alle anderen Drogen sehr gefährlich. Etwa 20 bis 60 Minuten nachdem MDMA konsumiert wurde, machen sich erste Nach Medienberichten über die „neue Droge“ im Raum Texas und ersten.
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Charles Grob von der Universität von Los Angeles. In schweren Fällen kann es zu spastischen Anfällen und Panikattacken kommen und im schlimmsten Fall sogar tödlich enden.
Dabei ist Molly eigentlich gar nicht neu, sondern nur in einem netten neuen Namen verpackt. Bei Molly soll es sich um eine "reine Variante" handeln.
Die Wirkung ist jedoch ähnlich wie bei Ecstasy. Das kristallartige Pulver, das geschnupft oder geschluckt wird, wirkt "stimulierend und halluzinogen".
Vor sechs Jahren habe er mit 19 angefangen, ab und an mal "eine Pille zu poppen". Heute nimmt er sie vor allem auf Konzerten.
Another method uses the Wacker process to oxidize safrole directly to the MDP2P intermediate with a palladium catalyst.
MDMA and MDA may be quantitated in blood, plasma or urine to monitor for use, confirm a diagnosis of poisoning or assist in the forensic investigation of a traffic or other criminal violation or a sudden death.
Some drug abuse screening programs rely on hair, saliva, or sweat as specimens. Most commercial amphetamine immunoassay screening tests cross-react significantly with MDMA or its major metabolites, but chromatographic techniques can easily distinguish and separately measure each of these substances.
At the time, Merck was interested in developing substances that stopped abnormal bleeding. Merck wanted to avoid an existing patent held by Bayer for one such compound: hydrastinine.
Köllisch developed a preparation of a hydrastinine analogue , methylhydrastinine, at the request of fellow lab members, Walther Beckh and Otto Wolfes.
MDMA called methylsafrylamin, safrylmethylamin or N-Methyl-a-Methylhomopiperonylamin in Merck laboratory reports was an intermediate compound in the synthesis of methylhydrastinine.
Merck was not interested in MDMA itself at the time. Merck records indicate its researchers returned to the compound sporadically.
Compared to ephedrine, Oberlin observed that it had similar effects on vascular smooth muscle tissue, stronger effects at the uterus, and no "local effect at the eye".
MDMA was also found to have effects on blood sugar levels comparable to high doses of ephedrine. Oberlin concluded that the effects of MDMA were not limited to the sympathetic nervous system.
Research was stopped "particularly due to a strong price increase of safrylmethylamine", which was still used as an intermediate in methylhydrastinine synthesis.
Albert van Schoor performed simple toxicological tests with the drug in , most likely while researching new stimulants or circulatory medications.
After pharmacological studies, research on MDMA was not continued. In and , the United States Army commissioned a study of toxicity and behavioral effects in animals injected with mescaline and several analogues, including MDMA.
Conducted at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor , these investigations were declassified in October and published in American chemist and psychopharmacologist Alexander Shulgin reported he synthesized MDMA in while researching methylenedioxy compounds at Dow Chemical Company , but did not test the psychoactivity of the compound at this time.
This individual later provided these instructions to a client in the Midwest. Shulgin first heard of the psychoactive effects of N-methylated MDA around from a young student who reported "amphetamine-like content".
Nichols published a report on the drug's psychoactive effect in humans. They described MDMA as inducing "an easily controlled altered state of consciousness with emotional and sensual overtones" comparable "to marijuana, to psilocybin devoid of the hallucinatory component, or to low levels of MDA".
While not finding his own experiences with MDMA particularly powerful,   Shulgin was impressed with the drug's disinhibiting effects and thought it could be useful in therapy.
When he tried the drug in , Zeff was impressed with the effects of MDMA and came out of his semi-retirement to promote its use in therapy.
Over the following years, Zeff traveled around the United States and occasionally to Europe, eventually training an estimated four thousand psychotherapists in the therapeutic use of MDMA.
Psychotherapists who used MDMA believed the drug eliminated the typical fear response and increased communication.
Sessions were usually held in the home of the patient or the therapist. The role of the therapist was minimized in favor of patient self-discovery accompanied by MDMA induced feelings of empathy.
Depression, substance abuse, relationship problems, premenstrual syndrome, and autism were among several psychiatric disorders MDMA assisted therapy was reported to treat.
Anecdotally, MDMA was said to greatly accelerate therapy. Only later was the term "ecstasy" used for it, coinciding with rising opposition to its use.
In the late s and early s, "Adam" spread through personal networks of psychotherapists, psychiatrists, users of psychedelics, and yuppies.
A small recreational market for MDMA developed by the late s,  consuming perhaps 10, doses in Having commenced production in , this "Boston Group" did not keep up with growing demand and shortages frequently occurred.
Perceiving a business opportunity, Michael Clegg, the Southwest distributor for the Boston Group, started his own "Texas Group" backed financially by Texas friends.
Recreational use also increased after several cocaine dealers switched to distributing MDMA following experiences with the drug.
In the next month, the World Health Organization identified MDMA as the only substance out of twenty phenethylamines to be seized a significant number of times.
Young presiding. Sensational media attention was given to the proposed criminalization and the reaction of MDMA proponents, effectively advertising the drug.
The agency cited increased distribution in Texas, escalating street use, and new evidence of MDA an analog of MDMA neurotoxicity as reasons for the emergency measure.
Lawn overruled and classified the drug as Schedule I. Despite this, less than a month later Lawn reviewed the evidence and reclassified MDMA as Schedule I again, claiming that the expert testimony of several psychiatrists claiming over cases where MDMA had been used in a therapeutic context with positive results could be dismissed because they weren't published in medical journals.
While engaged in scheduling debates in the United States, the DEA also pushed for international scheduling.
The committee made this recommendation on the basis of the pharmacological similarity of MDMA to previously scheduled drugs, reports of illicit trafficking in Canada, drug seizures in the United States, and lack of well-defined therapeutic use.
While intrigued by reports of psychotherapeutic uses for the drug, the committee viewed the studies as lacking appropriate methodological design and encouraged further research.
Committee chairman Paul Grof dissented, believing international control was not warranted at the time and a recommendation should await further therapeutic data.
The use of MDMA in Texas clubs declined rapidly after criminalization, although by the drug remained popular among young middle-class whites and in nightclubs.
Since the mids, MDMA has become the most widely used amphetamine-type drug by college students and teenagers.
After MDMA was criminalized, most medical use stopped, although some therapists continued to prescribe the drug illegally.
Later, [ when? This may be due to increased seizures during use and decreased production of the precursor chemicals used to manufacture MDMA.
Unwitting substitution with other drugs, such as mephedrone and methamphetamine ,  as well as legal alternatives to MDMA, such as BZP , MDPV , and methylone , are also thought to have contributed to its decrease in popularity.
In it was found that some pills being sold as MDMA contained pentylone , which can cause very unpleasant agitation and paranoia. According to David Nutt , when safrole was restricted by the United Nations in order to reduce the supply of MDMA, producers in China began using anethole instead, but this gives para-methoxyamphetamine PMA, also known as "Dr Death" , which is much more toxic than MDMA and can cause overheating, muscle spasms, seizures, unconsciousness, and death.
MDMA is legally controlled in most of the world under the UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances and other international agreements, although exceptions exist for research and limited medical use.
In general, the unlicensed use, sale or manufacture of MDMA are all criminal offences. In Australia, MDMA was declared an illegal substance in because of its harmful effects and potential for abuse.
Any other type of sale, use or manufacture is strictly prohibited by law. Permits for research uses on humans must be approved by a recognized ethics committee on human research.
Although MDMA was not named explicitly in this legislation, the order extended the definition of Class A drugs to include various ring-substituted phenethylamines.
Some researchers such as David Nutt have criticized the current scheduling of MDMA, which he determines to be a relatively harmless drug.
The United States District Court for the Eastern District of Tennessee explained its ruling by noting that "an individual federal district court judge simply cannot marshal resources akin to those available to the Commission for tackling the manifold issues involved with determining a proper drug equivalency.
In , 3. A number of ecstasy manufacturers brand their pills with a logo, often being the logo of an unrelated corporation. The Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies MAPS is funding pilot studies and clinical trials investigating the use of MDMA in psychotherapy to treat posttraumatic stress disorder PTSD ,  social anxiety in autistic adults,      and anxiety in terminal illness.
The potential for MDMA to be used as a rapid-acting antidepressant has been studied in clinical trials, but as of the evidence on efficacy and safety were insufficient to reach a conclusion.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Psychoactive drug. IUPAC name. Interactive image. A salt of MDMA typically white with impurities, resulting in a tan discoloration.
Dehydration    Hyperthermia    Bruxism grinding and clenching of the teeth    Increased wakefulness or insomnia   Increased perspiration and sweating   Increased heart rate and blood pressure    Increased psychomotor activity  Loss of appetite   Nausea and vomiting  Diarrhea  Erectile dysfunction   Visual and auditory hallucinations rarely .
Trismus lockjaw  Loss of appetite  Insomnia  Tiredness or lethargy  . Anxiety or paranoia  Depression   Irritability  Impulsiveness  Restlessness  Memory impairment  Anhedonia .
R -MDMA. S -MDMA. German patents for MDMA synthesis and the subsequent methylhydrastinine synthesis filed by Merck on 24 December and issued in Play media.
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MDMA is listed as a Schedule 1 drug by the United States Drug Enforcement Agency, meaning that currently there are no accepted medical uses for MDMA in the United States, there is a lack of accepted safety for use under medical supervision, and there is a high potential for abuse.
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